Many industrial multiuniversities and specialist colleges have been established, strengthening some incomplete subjects and establishing new specialties, e.g., automation, nuclear power, energy resources, oceanography, nuclear physics, computer science, polymer chemistry, polymer physics, radiochemistry, physical chemistry and biophysics. National examinations to select students for higher education (and positions of leadership) were an important part of China's culture, and, traditionally, entrance to a higher education institution is considered prestigious. Students of remote and under-developed areas are the biggest beneficiaries of online education, but online universities offer students who failed university entrance examinations and working people the chance of lifelong education and learning. Less than 2 percent of the students who passed the written test were eliminated for reasons of poor health. A foreign language, often English, is introduced in about the third grade. Higher education can also be called as tertiary education in China and generally is taken up by those who wish to study further and add degrees or diplomas to their portfolio. Under the Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education, primary schools were to be tuition-free and reasonably located for the convenience of children attending them; students would attend primary schools in their neighborhoods or villages. Generally speaking, Chinese, Mathematics, and English are considered as three main subjects as they will definitely be examined in Gaokao. Every year 450,000 engineering students graduate from college, 50,000 graduate with masters degrees, and 8,000 graduate with Ph.Ds. In order to realize the scientific and orderly development of ICT in education, China has developed a holistic and top-down approach. 2. Education Policy Prior to the Economic Reform After the Communist party took power in China in 1949, education was under strict government control. The academic curriculum consists of Chinese, Mathematics, English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, History, Ideology & Political Science, Music, Fine Arts, PE, Technology, Computing, etc. By mid-decade of the 21st Century, therefore, academics and policy-makers alike began to question the policy that pours funds into vocational schools that do not do their intended function. Vocational education embraces higher vocational schools, secondary skill schools, vestibule schools, vocational high schools, job-finding centers, and other adult skills and social training institutes. The severe competition only occurs in the very top high schools, normally, most students will have sufficient results for them to continue their secondary education if they wish to. Preferential admission treatment (in spite of lower test scores) was given to minority candidates, students from disadvantaged areas, and those who agreed in advance to work in less developed regions after graduation. Zhongkao (中考), the Senior High School Entrance Examination, is the academic examination held annually in China to distinguish junior graduates. [94] Students have uniforms for both sportswear and their daily uniform, both of which will change depending on the season. Particular attention has been paid to improving systems in recent reforms. The importance of education can be seen in Emperor Zhenzong’s (968–1022 AD) poem John F. Cleverley, The Schooling of China : Tradition and Modernity in Chinese Education (North Sydney, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin; 2nd, 1991). Although cities like Shanghai regularly perform highly in international assessments, Chinese education has both native and international detractors; common areas of criticism include its intense rigor; its emphasis on memorization and standardized testing;[98] and the gap in quality of education between regions and genders. [105], China's first contact with the English language occurred between the Chinese and English traders, and the first missionary schools to teach English were established in Macau in the 1630s. Zhao, Xu. The participation of big investors in online education has made it a new hotspot for investment in the education industry. In the early 1980s, the government allowed the establishment of the first private institution of higher learning, thus increasing the number of undergraduates and people who hold doctoral degrees from 1995 to 2005. Education in China is primarily managed by the state-run public education system, which falls under the command of the Ministry of Education. To understand the education hierarchy in China well, you can read the following given information. With more students going abroad for university, increasing numbers of affluent families are "opting out" of the conventional public school system, which is heavily oriented towards preparing for the Chinese college admissions test. More than 20,000 of these students graduated annually from evening universities, workers' colleges, television universities, and correspondence schools - more than twice the number graduating from regular colleges and universities. 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